Stephen Safe

Stephen Safe

Professor

Center for Translational Environmental Health Research
2121 W. Holcombe Blvd.
Houston, TX   77030

Phone: 713-677-7753
ssafe@cvm.tamu.edu

Education and Training

B.Sc., Queen's University, 1962
M.Sc., Queen's University, 1963
D. Phil., Oxford University, 1965

Research Interests

Dr. Safe's research is focused on the molecular biology of cancer cell growth and development of new mechanism-based anticancer drugs, with emphasis in the areas of molecular biology of endocrine disruption chemicals, mechanisms of toxicity, breast cancer including mechanisms and therapeutics, pancreatic, prostate, colon, and bladder cancer including mechanisms of growth and effects of PPARyagonists.

Recent Publications

Selected Publications

Lee, J.E., Kim, K., Sacchettini, J.C., Smith, C.V. and Safe, S.  Vitamin D-interacting protein 150 (DRIP150) coactivation of estrogen receptor  (ER) in ZR-75 breast cancer cells is independent of LXXLL motifs.  J. Biol. Chem.  280:8819-8830, 2005.

Safe, S.  Clinical correlates of environmental endocrine disruptors.  Trends Endocrinol. Metab.  16:139-144, 2005.

Contractor, R., Samudio, I.J., Estrov, Z., Harris, D., McCubrey, J.A., Safe, S.H., Andreeff, M. and Konopleva, M.  A novel ring-substituted diindolylmethane 1,1-bis[3'-(5-methoxyindolyl)]-1-(p-t-butylphenyl)methane inhibits ERK activation and induces apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia.  Cancer Res.  65:2890-2898, 2005.

Kim, K., Barhoumi, R., Burghardt, R. and Safe, S.  Analysis of estrogen receptor -Sp1 interactions in breast cancer cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.  Mol. Endocrinol.  19:843-854, 2005.

Abdelrahim, M., Lui, S. and Safe, S.  Induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-induced stress genes in Panc-1 pancratic cancer cells is dependent on Sp proteins.  J. Biol. Chem.  280:16508-16513, 2005.

Chintharlapalli, S., Papineni, S., Konopleva, M., Andreeff, M., Samudio, I. and Safe, S.  2-Cyano-3,12-dioxo-olean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) and related esters inhibit growth of colon cancer cells through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor -dependent and -independent pathways.  Mol. Pharmacol.  68:119-128, 2005.

Chintharlapalli, S., Burghardt, R., Papineni, S., Ramaiah, S., Yoon, K. and Safe, S.  Activation of Nur77 by selected 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes induces apoptosis through nuclear pathways.  J. Biol. Chem.  280:24903-24914, 2005.

Abdelrahim, M. and Safe, S.H.  Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors decrease vascular endothelial growth factor expression in colon cancer cells by enhanced degradation of Sp1 and Sp4 proteins.  Mol. Pharmacol.  68:317-329, 2005.

Calabro, P., Samudio, I., Safe, S.H., Willerson, J.T. and Yeh, E.T.  Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor--induced endothelial cell activation by a new class of PPAR agonists:  an in vitro study showing receptor-inependent effects..  J. Vascular Res.  42:509-516, 2005.

Samudio, I., Konopleva, M., Hail, Jr., N., Shi, Y-X., McQueen, T., Hsu, T., Evans, R., Honda, T., Gribble, G.W., Sporn, M., Gilbert, H.F., Safe, S. and Andreeff, M.  2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-diene-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) directly targets mitochondrial glutathione to induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer.  J. Biol. Chem.  280:36273-36282, 2005.

Safe, S. and Abdelrahim, M.  Sp family transcription factors and their role in cancer.  Eur. J. Cancer  41:2438-2448, 2005.
Chintharlapalli, S., Papineni, S., Baek, S.J., Liu, S. and Safe, S.H.  1,1-Bis(3'indolyl)-1-(p-phenylsubstituted)methanes are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor  agonists but decrease HCT-116 colon cancer cell survival through receptor-independent activation of early growth response-1 and NAG-1.  Mol. Pharmacol.  68:1782-1792, 2005.

Mitchell, D.C., Abdelrahim, M., Weng, J., Stafford, L.J., Safe, S., Bar-Eli, M. and Liu, M.  Regulation of KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor gene expression in breast cancer cells by direct interaction of transcription factors activator protein-2 and specificity protein-1.  J. Biol. Chem.  281:51-58, 2005.

Zhang, S., Li, X., Burghardt, R., Smith III, R. and Safe, S.  Role of estrogen receptor  (ER) in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-induced responses in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.  J. Mol. Endocrinol.  35:433-447, 2005.

Samudio, I., Konopleva, M., Safe, S., McQueen, T. and Andreeff, M.  Gluggulsterones induce apoptosis and differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia:  identification of isomer-specific antileukemic activities of the pregnadienedione structure.  Mol. Cancer Ther.  4:1982-1992, 2005.

Lee, S.H., Yamaguchi, K., Kim, J.S., Eling, T.E., Safe, S., Park, Y. and Baek S.J.  Conjugated linoleic acid stimulates an anti-tumorigenic protein NAG-1 in an isomer specific manner.  Carcinogenesis  27:972-981, 2006.

Vanderlaag, K., Samudio, I., Burghardt, R., Barhoumi, R. and Safe,S.  Inhibition of breast cancer cell growth and induction of cell death by 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)methane (DIM) and 5,5'-dibromoDIM.  Cancer Lett.  236:198-212, 2006.

Abdelrahim, M., Newman, K., Vanderlaag, K., Samudio, I. and Safe, S.  3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) and derivatives induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent upregulation of DR5.  Carcinogenesis  27:717-728, 2006.

Fleming, J.G., Spencer, T.E., Safe, S.H. and Bazer, F.W.  Estrogen regulates transcription of the ovine oxytocin receptor gene through GC-rich Sp1 promoter elements.  Endocrinology  147:899-911, 2006.

Mitchell, D.C., Abdelrahim, M., Weng, J., Stafford, L.J., Safe, S., Bar-Eli, M. and Liu, M.  Regulation of KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor gene expression in breast cancer cells by direct interaction of transcription factors activator protein-2 and specificity protein-1.  J. Biol. Chem.  281:51-58, 2006.

Kassouf, W., Chintharlapalli, S., Abdelrahim, M., Nelkin, G., Safe, S. and Kamat, A.M.  Inhibition of bladder tumor growth by 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes:  a new class of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor  agonists.  Cancer Res.  66:412-418, 2006.

Li, X., Zhang, S. and Safe, S.  Activation of kinase pathways in MCF-7 cells by 17-estradiol and structurally-diverse estrogenic compounds.  J. Ster. Biochem. Mol. Biol.  98:122-132, 2006.

Abdelrahim, M., Ariazi, E., Kim, K., Khan, S., Barhoumi, R., Burghardt, R., Liu, S., Hill, D., Finnell, R., Wlodarczyk, B., Jordan, V.C. and Safe, S.  3-Methylcholanthrene and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists directly activate estrogen receptor .  Cancer Res.  66:2459-2467, 2006.

Konopleva, M., Zhang, W., Shi, Y.X., McQueen, T., Tsao, T., Abdelrahim, M., Munsell, M.F., Johansen, M., Yu, D., Madden, T., Safe, S.H., Hung, M.C. and Andreeff, M.  Synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid induces growth arrest in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.  Mol. Cancer. Ther.  2:317-328, 2006.

Higgins, K.J., Abdelrahim, M., Liu, S., Yoon, K. and Safe, S.  Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression in pancreatic cancer cells by Sp proteins.  Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.  345:292-301, 2006.

Chintharlapallli, C., Papineni, S. and Safe, S.  1-1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl) methanes inhibit colon cancer cell and tumor growth through PPAR-dependent and PPAR-independent pathways.  Mol. Cancer Ther.  5:1362-1370, 2006.

Ru Lee, W., Chen, C-C., Liu, S. and Safe, S.  17-Estradiol (E2) induces Cdc25A gene expression in breast cancer cells by genomic and non-genomic pathways.  J. Cell. Biochem.  99:209-220, 2006.

Barhoumi, R., Awooda, I., Mouneimne, Y., Safe, S. and Burghardt, R.  Effects of benzo-a-pyrene on oxytocin-induced Ca2+ oscillations in myometrial cells.  Toxicol. Lett.  165:133-141, 2006.

Higgins, K.J., Liu, S., Abdelrahim, M., Yoon, K., Vanderlaag, K., Porter, W., Metz, R.P. and Safe, S.  Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression is induced by 17-estradiol in ZR-75 breast cancer cells by estrogen receptor /Sp proteins.  Endocrinology  147:3285-3295, 2006.

Khan, S. Barhoumi, R., Burghardt, R., Liu, S., Kim K. and Safe, S.  Molecular mechanism of inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor/Sp1 crosstalk in breast cancer cells.  Mol. Endocrinol.  20:1234-1237, 2006.

Khan, S., Konstantinov, A., Chittim, B., McAllees, A., Yeo, B.  and Safe, S.  Structure-dependent Ah receptor agonist activities of chlorinated biphenylenes.  Toxicol. In Vitro  20:1234-1237, 2006.

Abdelrahim, M., Baker, C.H., Abbruzzese, J.L. and Safe, S.  Tolfenamic acid and pancreatic cancer growth, angiogenesis, and Sp protein degradation.  J. Natl. Cancer Inst.  98:855-868, 2006.

Safe, S. and Papineni, S.  The role of xenoestrogenic compounds in the development of breast cancer.  Trends Pharmacol. Sci.  27:447-454, 2006.

Van den Berg, M. Birnbaum, L.S., Denison, M., De Vito, M., Farland, W., Feeley, M., Fiedler, H., Hakansson, H., Hanberg, A., Haws, L., Rose, M. Safe, S., Schrenk, D., Tohyama, C., Tritscher, A., Tuomisto, J., Tysklind, M., Walker, N. and Peterson, R.E.  The 2005 World Health Organization re-evaluation of human and mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.  Toxicol. Sci.  93:223-241, 2006.

Harding, A.K., Daston, G.P., Boyd, G.R., Lucier, F.W., Safe, S.H., Stewart, J., Tillitt, D.W., Van Der Kraak, G.  Endocrine disrupting chemicals research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency:  summary of a peer-review report.  Environ. Health Perspect.  114:1276-1282, 2006.

Liu, S., Abdelrahim, M., Khan, S., Ariazi, E., Jordan, V.C. and Safe, S.  Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists directly activate estrogen receptor  in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.  Biol. Chem.  387:1209-1213, 2006.

Lei, P., Abdelrahim, M. and Safe, S.  1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-dependent and independent pathways.  Mol. Cancer Ther.  5:2324-2336, 2006.

Chintharlapalli, S., Papineni, S. and Safe, S.H.  1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes inhibit growth, induce apoptosis, and decrease the androgen receptor in LNCaP prostate cancer cells through PPAR-independent pathways.  Mol. Pharmacol.  71:558-569, 2007.

Cho, S.D., Yoon, K., Chintharlapalli, S., Abdelrahim, M., Pei, P., Hamilton, S., Khan, S., Ramaiah, S.K. and Safe, S.  Nur77 agonists induce proapoptotic genes and responses in colon cancer cells through nuclear receptor-dependent and independent pathways.  Cancer Res.  67:674-683, 2007.

Wu, F. and Safe, S.  Differential activation of wild-type estrogen receptor  and C-terminal deletion mutants by estrogens, antiestrogens and xenoestrogens in breast cancer cells.  J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.  103:1-9, 2007.

Chintharlapalli, S., Papineni, S., Ramaiah, S.K. and Safe, S.  Betulinic acid inhibits prostate cancer growth through inhibition of specificity protein transcription factors.  Cancer Res.  67:2816-2823, 2007.

Abdelrahim, M., Baker, C.H., Abbruzzese, J.L., Sheikh-Hamad, D., Liu, S., Cho, S.D., Yoon, K. and Safe, S.  Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) expression by specificity proteins 1, 3 and 4 in pancreatic cancer cells.  Cancer Res.  67:3286-3294, 2007.

Wu F, and Safe S. Differential activation of wild-type estrogen receptor alpha and C-terminal deletion mutants by estrogens, antiestrogens and xenoestrogens in breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Jan:103(1):1-9.

Cho SD, Yoon K, Chintharlapalli S, Abdelrahim M, Lei P, Hamilton , Khan S, Ramaiah Sk, Safe S. Nur 77 agonists induce proapoptotic genes and responses in colon cancer cells through nuclear receptor-independent pathways. Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 15;67(2):674-83.

Lee, J. and Safe, S.  Coactivation of estrogen receptor  (ER)/Sp1 by vitamin D receptor interacting protein 150 (DRIP150).  Arch. Biochem. Biophys.  2007 May 15:461(2):200-10. Epub 2007 Jan 23.

Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Ramaiah SK and Safe S. Betulinic acid inhibits prostate cancer growth through inhibition of specificity protein transcription factors. Cancer Res. 2007 Mar 15;67(6):2816-23.

Abdelrahim M, Baker CH, Abbruzzese JL, Sheikh-Hamad D, Liu S, Cho SD, Yoon, K, and Safe S. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 expression by specificity proteins 1, 3, and 4 in pancreatic cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2007 Apr 1;67(7):3286-94.

Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Jutooru I, McAlees A and Safe S. Structure-dependent activity of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonists in colon cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 May;6(5):1588-98.

Vanderlaag K, Su Y, Frankel AE, Grage H, Smith R 3rd, Khan S and Safe, S. 1,1-Bis (3’-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells by activation of multiple pathways. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007 Jul 12.

Khan S, Liu S, Stoner M and Safe S. Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells. Toxicol. Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Aug 15;223(1):28-38.

Su Y, Vanderlaag K, Ireland C, Ortiz J, Grage H, Safe S, and Frankel AE. 1,1-Bis(‘-indolyl)1-(p-biphenyl)methane inhibits basal-like breast cancer growth in athymic nude mice. Breast Cancer Res. 2007;9(4):R56.

Khan S, Wu F, Liu S, Wu Q and Safe S. Role of specificity protein transcription factors in estrogen-induced gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J Mol Endocrinol. 2007 Oct;39(4):289-304.

Cho SD, Lei P, Abdelrahim M, Yoon K, Liu S, Guo J, Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S and Safe S. 1,1-bis(3-indolyl)-1-(p-methoxyphenyl)methane activates Nur77-independent proapoptotic responses in colon cancer cells. Mol Carcinog. 2007 Oct 23.

Redivari L, Vanamala J, Chintharlapalli S, Safe SH, and Miller JC Jr. Anthocyanin fraction from potato extracts is cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase-dependentand caspase-independent pathways. Carciogenesis. 2007 Oct;28(10):2227-35.

Zhang S, Rowlands C and Safe S. Ligand-dependent interactions of the Ah receptor with coactivators in a mammalian two-hybrid assay. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Nov 1.

Mertens-Talcott SU, Chintharlapalli S, Li X and Safe S. The oncogenic microRNA-27a targets genes that regulate specificity protein transcription factors and the G2-M checkpoint in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2007 Nov 15;67(22):11001-11.

York, M, Abdelrahim M, Chintharlapalli S, Lucero SD, Safe S. 1,1-bis(3’indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes induce apoptosis and inhibit renal cell carcinoma growth. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Nov 15;13(22 Pt 1):6743-52.

Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Liu S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Cho SD, Murthy RS, You Y and Safe S. 2-cyano-lup-1-en-3-oxo-20-oic acid, a cyano derivative of betulinic acid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in colon and pancreatic cancer cells. Carcinogenesis, 2007 Nov 28(11):2337-46.

Hong, J, Samudio I, Chintharlapalli S and Safe S. 1,1-bis(3’-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes decrease mitochondrial membrane potential and induce apoptosis in endometrial and other cancer cell lines. Mol Carcinog. 2007 Dec 17.

Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S, and Safe S. Methyl 2-Cyano-3,11dioxo-18beta-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist that induces receptor-independent apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Feb;73(2):553-65.

Tjalkens RB, Liu X, Mohl B, Wright T, Moreno JA, Carbone DL and Safe S. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist 1,1-bis(3’-indolyl)-1-p- trifluoromethylphenyl)methane suppresses manganese-induced production of nitric oxide in astrocytes and inhibits apoptosis in cocultured PC12 cells. J Neuroscu Res, 2998 Feb 15;86(3):618-29.

Higgins KJ, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Vanderlaag K, Liu X, Porter W, Metz R, and Safe S. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 Expression Is Down-Regulated by 17{beta}-Estradiol in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells by Estrogen Receptor {alpha}/Sp Proteins. Mol. Endocrinol. 2008 Feb;22(2):388-402.

Zhang S, Rowlands C, Safe S. Ligand-dependent interactions of the Ah receptor with coactivators in a mammalian two-hybrid assay. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Mar 1;227(2):196-206.

Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, McAlees A, Stefanac T, Safe S. Structure-dependent inhibition of bladder and pancreatic cancer cell growth by 2-substituted glycyrrhetinic and ursolic acid derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Apr 15;18(8):2633-9.

Wu F, Khan S, Wu Q, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S. Ligand structure-dependent activation of estrogen receptor alpha/Sp by estrogens and xenoestrogens. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 May;110(1-2):104-15.

Pacheco-Palencia LA, Talcott ST, Safe S, Mertens-Talcott S. Absorption and biological activity of phytochemical-rich extracts from açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp and oil in vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 May 28;56(10):3593-600.

Lei P, Abdelrahim M, Cho SD, Liu S, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S. 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit colon cancer cell and tumor growth through activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase. Carcinogenesis. 2008 Jun;29(6):1139-47.

Cho SD, Chintharlapalli S, Abdelrahim M, Papineni S, Liu S, Guo J, Lei P, Abudayyeh A, Safe S. 5,5'-Dibromo-bis(3'-indolyl)methane induces Kruppel-like factor 4 and p21 in colon cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Jul;7(7):2109-20.

Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Smith R 3rd, Li X, Safe S. Curcumin decreases specificity protein expression in bladder cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2008 Jul 1;68(13):5345-54.

Hong J, Samudio I, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S. 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes decrease mitochondrial membrane potential and induce apoptosis in endometrial and other cancer cell lines. Mol Carcinog. 2008 Jul;47(7):492-507.

Lei P, Abdelrahim M, Cho SD, Liu X, Safe S. Structure-dependent activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in pancreatic cancer by 1,1-bis(3'-indoly)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Oct;7(10):3363-72. Erratum in: Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Nov;7(11):3654. Liu, Xingi [corrected to Liu, Xinyi].

Safe S, Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S. Cancer chemotherapy with indole-3-carbinol, bis(3'-indolyl)methane and synthetic analogs. Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8;269(2):326-38.

Wu F, Xu R, Kim K, Martin J, Safe S. In vivo profiling of estrogen receptor/specificity protein-dependent transactivation. Endocrinology. 2008 Nov;149(11):5696-705.

Inamoto T, Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S, Cho SD, Safe S, Kamat AM. 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)methane activates the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 and inhibits bladder cancer growth. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Dec;7(12):3825-33.

Lee SH, Bahn JH, Choi CK, Whitlock NC, English AE, Safe S, Baek SJ. ESE-1/EGR-1 pathway plays a role in tolfenamic acid-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Dec;7(12):3739-50.

Wu F, Ivanov I, Xu R, Safe S. Role of SP transcription factors in hormone-dependent modulation of genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: microarray and RNA interference studies. J Mol Endocrinol. 2009 Jan;42(1):19-33.

Carbone DL, Popichak KA, Moreno JA, Safe S, Tjalkens RB. Suppression of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced nitric-oxide synthase 2 expression in astrocytes by a novel diindolylmethane analog protects striatal neurons against apoptosis. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Jan;75(1):35-43.

Ichite N, Chougule MB, Jackson T, Fulzele SV, Safe S, Singh M. Enhancement of docetaxel anticancer activity by a novel diindolylmethane compound in human non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Jan 15;15(2):543-52.

Barhoumi R, Catania JM, Parrish AR, Awooda I, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Safe S, Burghardt RC. Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in breast epithelial cell lines. J Toxicol Sci. 2009 Feb;34(1):13-25.

Konduri S, Colon J, Baker CH, Safe S, Abbruzzese JL, Abudayyeh A, Basha MR, Abdelrahim M. Tolfenamic acid enhances pancreatic cancer cell and tumor response to radiation therapy by inhibiting survivin protein expression. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009 Mar;8(3):533-42.

Fritz WA, Lin TM, Safe S, Moore RW, Peterson RE. The selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran inhibits prostate tumor metastasis in TRAMP mice. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Apr 1;77(7):1151-60.

Safe S, Kim K. Non-classical genomic estrogen receptor (ER)/specificity protein and ER/activating protein-1 signaling pathways. J Mol Endocrinol. 2008 Nov;41(5):263-75. Epub 2008 Sep 4. Review. Erratum in: J Mol Endocrinol. 2009 Apr;42(4):359. Kim, Kyoungkim [corrected to Kim, Kyounghyun].

Liu X, Abdelrahim M, Abudayyeh A, Lei P, Safe S. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid inhibits BT474 and SKBR3 breast cancer cell and tumor growth by repressing erbB2 expression. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009 May 12.

Lee SO, Chintharlapalli S, Liu S, Papineni S, Cho SD, Yoon K, Safe S. p21 expression is induced by activation of nuclear nerve growth factor-induced Balpha (Nur77) in pancreatic cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2009 Jul;7(7):1169-78.

Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S, Abdelrahim M, Lee SO, Burghardt R, Abudayyeh A, Baker C, Herrera L, Safe S. Tolfenamic acid inhibits esophageal cancer through repression of specificity proteins and c-Met. Carcinogenesis. 2009 Jul;30(7):1193-201.

Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Safe S. Induction of apoptosis and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene 1 in pancreatic cancer cells by a glycyrrhetinic acid derivative. Mol Carcinog. 2009 Aug;48(8):692-702.

Zhang S, Lei P, Liu X, Li X, Walker K, Kotha L, Rowlands C, Safe S. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a target for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer chemotherapy. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009 Sep;16(3):835-44.

Colon J, Basha MR, Madero-Visbal R, Konduri S, Baker CH, Herrera LJ, Safe S, Sheikh-Hamad D, Abudayyeh A, Alvarado B, Abdelrahim M. Tolfenamic acid decreases c-Met expression through Sp proteins degradation and inhibits lung cancer cells growth and tumor formation in orthotopic mice. Invest New Drugs. 2009 Oct 23.

Guo J, Chintharlapalli S, Lee SO, Cho SD, Lei P, Papineni S, Safe S. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent activity of indole ring-substituted 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-biphenyl)methanes in cancer cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 Oct 13.

da Costa CA, Sunyach C, Giaime E, West A, Corti O, Brice A, Safe S, Abou-Sleiman PM, Wood NW, Takahashi H, Goldberg MS, Shen J, Checler F. Transcriptional repression of p53 by parkin and impairment by mutations associated with autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson's disease. Nat Cell Biol. 2009 Nov;11(11):1370-5.

Sreevalsan S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Walker M, Safe S. 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-bromophenyl)methane and related compounds repress survivin and decrease gamma-radiation-induced survivin in colon and pancreatic cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2009 Nov;35(5):1191-9.

Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Abdelrahim M, Abudayyeh A, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Wu F, Mertens-Talcott S, Vanderlaag K, Cho SD, Smith R 3rd, Safe S. Oncogenic microRNA-27a is a target for anticancer agent methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18beta-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate in colon cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2009 Oct 15;125(8):1965-74.

Cho SD, Lee SO, Chintharlapalli S, Abdelrahim M, Khan S, Yoon K, Kamat A, Safe S. Activation of Nerve Growth Factor-Induced B{alpha} by Methylene-Substituted Diindolylmethanes in Bladder Cancer Cells Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Tumor Growth. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Dec 18.

Choi KH, Kim HK, Kim JH, Choi ES, Shin JA, Lee SO, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S, Abdelrahim M, Kong G, Choi HS, Jung JY, Cho HT, Cho NP, Cho SD. The p38 MAPK pathway is critical for 5,5'-dibromodiindolylmethane-induced apoptosis to prevent oral squamous carcinoma cells. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2010 Mar; 19(2):153-9.